Wisdom Teeth 101: Why Extractions Are Often Necessary

Wisdom teeth, also known as third molars, are the last set of teeth to emerge in the mouth. They typically grow in during the late teenage years or early twenties. While some individuals experience no issues with their wisdom teeth, many people often require extractions. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the reasons why wisdom tooth extractions are often necessary.

What are Wisdom Teeth?

Wisdom teeth are vestigial teeth that were necessary for our ancestors who had larger jaws and ate raw, unprocessed food. In modern humans, however, these teeth have become unnecessary and often pose various oral health problems.

Most individuals have four wisdom teeth, two on the upper and two on the lower jaw. However, some individuals may have fewer or even none at all. The eruption of wisdom teeth can cause severe pain and discomfort due to various reasons, which is why extraction is frequently suggested by dental professionals.

Reasons why Extractions are Often Necessary

1. Insufficient Space:

One common reason why wisdom teeth require extraction is the lack of sufficient space to accommodate them. The human jaw has evolved to become smaller over time, leading to a mismatch between the jaw size and the number of teeth that need to erupt. As a result, the wisdom teeth do not have enough space to grow in properly. This can lead to impacted wisdom teeth, which are partially or fully trapped beneath the gum line.

Impacted wisdom teeth can cause a myriad of problems, including pain, swelling, infection, and even the misalignment of adjacent teeth. Removing these impacted teeth is crucial to prevent further complications and maintain good oral health.

2. Crowding and Shifting:

Even if there seems to be enough space for the wisdom teeth to emerge, they can still cause crowding and shifting of the existing teeth in the mouth. The pressure exerted by the emerging wisdom teeth can push the surrounding teeth, leading to misalignment and overlaying. This can result in orthodontic problems and may require further treatment to correct.

By opting for wisdom tooth extractions, the risk of crowding and shifting can be effectively minimized, ensuring the teeth remain in their proper alignment and reducing the need for orthodontic intervention later on.

3. Infection and Gum Diseases:

Partially erupted or impacted wisdom teeth can create an ideal environment for the accumulation of bacteria and food particles. This can quickly lead to the development of infections such as pericoronitis, an inflammation of the soft tissues surrounding the tooth. In some cases, the gum tissue may even grow over the wisdom tooth, creating a flap where bacteria can thrive, leading to chronic gum diseases like gingivitis or periodontitis.

When infections and gum diseases occur, they can cause pain, swelling, bad breath, and even difficulty in opening the mouth. Extracting the wisdom teeth helps eliminate these potential sources of infection, promoting better oral health and overall well-being.

The Extraction Process

Wisdom tooth extractions are typically performed by oral surgeons or dentists with specialized training. The procedure can be done under local anesthesia, sedation, or general anesthesia depending on the complexity and patient’s preferences.

The dentist will make an incision in the gum tissue to expose the impacted or erupted tooth. If needed, a small amount of bone may be removed to provide better access. The tooth is then carefully extracted, and the incision is stitched up to promote proper healing.

Recovery from wisdom tooth extraction usually takes a few days to a week. During this time, it is important to follow the dentist’s postoperative care instructions, which may include taking prescribed pain medication, applying cold packs, and eating soft foods to aid in the healing process.


While the eruption of wisdom teeth can be a normal part of dental development for some individuals, it often leads to complications that require extractions. The lack of space, potential for crowding, and risk of infection and gum diseases make wisdom tooth extractions necessary to avoid more severe dental problems in the long run. If you are experiencing pain or other symptoms related to your wisdom teeth, consult with your dentist to determine the best course of action to maintain your oral health.