Wisdom Tooth Extractions: What to Expect and Why It’s Done

Wisdom teeth, also known as third molars, are the final set of teeth to emerge in the back of the mouth. While some individuals can keep their wisdom teeth with no issues, for many people, these teeth can cause a range of problems. As a result, wisdom tooth extractions have become a common dental procedure. In this article, we will discuss what to expect during a wisdom tooth extraction and why it is done.

The Need for Wisdom Tooth Extraction

When wisdom teeth begin to grow, they may become impacted or fail to fully emerge from the gums. This can lead to various complications that necessitate their extraction. Some of the common reasons for wisdom tooth removal include:

1. Overcrowding:

One of the primary reasons for wisdom tooth extraction is overcrowding. In many cases, there isn’t enough space at the back of the mouth for these additional teeth to come in properly. This can cause the surrounding teeth to shift, leading to misalignment and bite issues.

2. Impacted Wisdom Teeth:

Wisdom teeth may become impacted when they are unable to fully break through the gums. Impacted teeth can lead to infections, gum disease, and severe pain. If left untreated, they may damage adjacent teeth and even the jawbone.

3. Teeth Misalignment:

Wisdom teeth can exert pressure on the neighboring teeth, causing them to shift and become misaligned. Crooked teeth not only affect your smile but can also make proper oral hygiene challenging, potentially resulting in tooth decay and gum disease.

The Wisdom Tooth Extraction Procedure

Before undergoing a wisdom tooth extraction, your dentist or oral surgeon will conduct a thorough examination, which may include X-rays, to assess the position and condition of your wisdom teeth. Based on the evaluation, they will determine the appropriate treatment plan.

The actual extraction procedure can typically be categorized into three main types:

1. Simple Extraction:

A simple extraction is performed when the tooth is visible above the gum line. Local anesthesia is administered to numb the area, and the tooth is gently loosened and then removed using forceps.

2. Surgical Extraction:

If the wisdom tooth is partially or fully impacted, a surgical extraction is necessary. The oral surgeon will make an incision in the gum tissue to access the tooth. In some cases, it may be necessary to remove some bone surrounding the tooth or divide it into smaller sections for easier removal.

3. General Anesthesia:

In certain complex cases or if multiple wisdom teeth need to be extracted, general anesthesia may be administered. This ensures you are completely unconscious during the procedure and is usually performed in a hospital or surgical center.

Recovery and Aftercare

Following a wisdom tooth extraction, it is normal to experience some discomfort, swelling, and bleeding. Your dentist will provide detailed instructions for post-operative care, which may include:

  • Using pain medication or antibiotics as prescribed
  • Applying ice packs to reduce swelling
  • Consuming soft foods and avoiding hard, chewy, or acidic foods
  • Avoiding strenuous activities that can disrupt the healing process
  • Gently rinsing your mouth with a warm saltwater solution
  • Maintaining proper oral hygiene, taking care to avoid the surgical site

It is crucial to follow these instructions to ensure a swift and complication-free recovery. If you experience severe pain, excessive bleeding, or any other unusual symptoms, contact your dentist immediately.


Wisdom tooth extractions are performed to address various issues caused by emerging wisdom teeth. Overcrowding, impaction, and misalignment are some common reasons why people undergo this dental procedure. By understanding the need for wisdom tooth extraction and what to expect during the procedure, you can plan accordingly and take necessary precautions for a successful recovery.